Glucosamine has been a key ingredient in U.S. joint care supplements for over two decades with import volumes reaching 7,000-10,000 tons annually. It is traditionally derived from Asian shellfish production residue, which raises significant health and environmental concerns, including extreme water pollution from toxic pesticides and veterinary drugs used in fish feeds and high levels of toxic waste materials.

GreenGrown® Glucosamine

GreenGrown® is the ultimate solution for those seeking an eco-friendly alternative to shellfish-derived glucosamine. Made using non-GMO corn and a patented fermentation process, it is a certified non-GMO product that has been audited for environmental safety. With 21 patents in 12 countries, GreenGrown® is the clear choice for those committed to sustainability.

GreenGrown® is the only vegetable source glucosamine offering the following guarantees:

  • Vegetable source tested and guaranteed by the patented ISCT (Isotopic Signature Carbon Tracing) method.
  • Highest USP grade, tested through ENI’s NSF Certified QA program.
  • Certified Non-GMO by Eurofins International.
  • Produced by fermentation processes protected by 21 patents in 12 countries.

Besides, GreenGrown® is offered in four different specifications, making it perfect for either encapsulation or tableting purposes:

  • USP Glucosamine Sulfate (powder)
  • USP Glucosamine Hydrochloride (powder)
  • USP Glucosamine Sulfate (DC- granular)
  • USP Glucosamine Hydrochloride (DC - granular)


Study 1 - Evaluation of Chondroprotective Action of Glucosamine on Soccer and Rugby Players by Analyzing Type II Collagen Degradation and Synthesis Markers

Study details

  • 10 non-athletes aged 23.5 ± 2.5 years and 21 soccer players aged 20.3 ± 0.9 years, were given oral doses of glucosamine hydrochloride (1.5 or 3 g/day) for three months
  • 19 rugby players aged 29.4 ± 3.7 years and 19 non-athletes aged 29.4 ± 3.7 years were also included in the study.


  • Soccer and rugby players showed elevated urine levels of type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II compared to non-athletes, suggesting increased cartilage metabolism. However, levels of type II collagen synthesis marker CPII remained similar to non-athletes.
  • These findings indicate higher CTX-II/CPII ratios in soccer and rugby players compared to non-athletes, suggesting a relatively elevated type II collagen degradation compared to synthesis in these athletes.
  • Glucosamine administration reduced CTX-II levels in soccer and rugby players, but they returned to baseline after discontinuation. CPII levels remained constant throughout the study.
  • These findings indicate that glucosamine administration reduced CTX-II/CPII ratios, but they returned to pre-administration levels after discontinuation of glucosamine.


Glucosamine demonstrates chondroprotective effects on endurance athletes, like soccer and rugby players, by preventing type II collagen degradation while maintaining type II collagen synthesis. However, these effects are transient and dissipate upon discontinuation of administration.


Figure 1: Comparison of the urine levels of CTX-II, NTx and CPII, and CTX-II/CPII ratio between non-athlete controls and soccer players.


Figure 2: Effect of glucosamine administration on urine levels of CTX-II and CPII, and CTX-II/CPII ratio in soccer players Soccer players were orally administered with glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN; 1.5 or 3 g/day for 3 months, as indicated by an arrow).


Figure 3: Comparison of the urine levels of CTX-II, NTx and CPII, and CTX-II/CPII ratio between non-athlete controls and rugby players.


Figure 4: Effect of glucosamine administration on the urine levels of CTX-II and CPII, and CTX-II/CPII ratio in rugby players

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Study 2: Evaluation of the effect of glucosamine administration on biomarkers of cartilage and bone metabolism in bicycle racers

Study details

  • 41 competitive bicycle racers, all males, aged between 19 and 22 years old
  • Actively training for competitive cycling during the study period over six sessions a week (Monday to Saturday) for 5h/day
  • Orally administered Glucosamine Hydrochloride (500 mg/capsule) at doses of 1.5 g/day or 3 g/day or cornstarch (0.9 g/day) as a placebo for 3 months
  • Serum and urine samples were collected before (at month 0) and following the glucosamine administration (at month 3).


  • Urinary CTX-II and serum CPII were measured to evaluate cartilage metabolism. 
  • Urinary NTx and serum BAP were analyzed for the evaluation of bone metabolism.


CPII, indicating type II collagen synthesis, remained relatively unchanged, whereas CTX-II, a marker of type II degradation, decreased with glucosamine administration, especially at a dosage of 3 g/day. This reduction in CTX-II/CPII ratio was dose-dependent. Conversely, levels of NTx, a bone resorption marker, and BAP, a bone formation marker, remained unaffected by glucosamine administration.


Glucosamine may exert a chondroprotective action by preventing type II collagen degradation in athletes of various sports, including soccer players and bicycle racers.


Figure 1: Effect of glucosamine administration on biomarkers of type II collagen degradation and synthesis and bone resorption and formation in bicycle racers.

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Study 3: Efficacy of a dietary supplement in dogs with osteoarthritis: A randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

Study details

  • 40 dogs were divided randomly into two groups, including Control and Treated.
  • Dogs in the CTR group received a placebo
  • The remains in the TRT group were given the tested supplement
  • The dosage was one tablet (2 grams) per 10 kilograms of body weight (BW), administered orally once daily for six weeks.


Throughout the observational period, dogs underwent various veterinary and owner evaluations at different time points: baseline (T0), followed by assessments after 40 days (T1) and 60 days (T2).


  • The TRT group exhibited a significant improvement in osteoarthritis signs at both T1 and T2, whereas no notable changes were observed in the CTR group over time. Initially, there were no significant differences in median clinical signs scores between groups at T0. However, by T1 and T2, the disparity between groups was significant.
  • At T0 and T1, there were no significant differences in the median chronic pain index (HCPI). However, by the end of the study, a notable disparity emerged, with the TRT group exhibiting significantly lower scores compared to the CTR group.


Our findings suggest that a dietary supplement could be effective for various clinical conditions, chronic pain levels, and joint involvement. The supplement we tested was found to be beneficial in relieving pain and reducing clinical symptoms in dogs with osteoarthritis. Further studies are needed to compare its effects with commonly used drug therapies, such as NSAIDs.


Figure 1: Comparison of clinical signs of OA between CRT and TRT groups at three-time points (T0, T1, T2), **p<0.01, Mann-Whitney U test.


Figure 2: Comparison of HCPI scores between CRT and TRT groups at three- time points (T0, T1, T2), * p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test.

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